Prostate Cancer

The prostate gland is found only in males and is a part of male reproductive system. Prostate cancer can be described as a form of cancer that develops within the prostate. Prostate cancer is a condition that occurs when the prostate gland cells begin to grow beyond control. The prostate gland is that is only found in males. It produces some fluid that makes up semen.

It lies below the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum. The gland surrounds the first part of the tube ‘urethra’ that carries urine from the bladder to the penis. The prostate can be divided into right and left “lobes”. The size of the gland changes with age. It grows rapidly during puberty, fuelled by the rise in male hormones (called androgens) in the body. In adult men, a typical prostate is about 3 cm thick and 4 cm wide (about the size of a walnut) and weighs about 20 grams, but it can be much larger in older me

Stages of prostate cancer

A cancer’s stage gives information on how far the cancer has spread. It is determined by considering three factors:

  • Size of tumor, and whether the cancer has spread beyond the prostate capsule or covering
  • Whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes close to the prostate
  • Whether there are any distant metastases

TNM staging system

The TNM staging system provides information about the cancer’s size and how far it has spread.

  • T = Tumor The T score is a rating of the size and extent of the primary tumor
  • N = Nodes The N reflects if the cancer has spread within nearby lymph nodes
  • M = Metastasis The M tells if the cancer has spread to distant sites

Treating prostate cancer

To determine the best treatment option for you, work with your healthcare team and consider the following factors:

  • Age
  • The stage and grade of your cancer
  • Your general health
  • Your values and preferences

Prostate Biopsy

A biopsy removes small samples of tissue for testing. Biopsies can also help your doctor assess how far the cancer has grown. A prostate biopsy is a type of biopsy that removes tissue from the prostate. To prepare for the biopsy, your doctor may say to stop taking some medications and start taking others.

PSMA pet scan

If you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, and there is a high risk for cancer spreading from the prostate to the bones, so your doctor may recommend a bone scan. For this test, a radiotracer will be injected into your vein. The most common radiotracer used for bone scans is technetium. A special camera will then take pictures of the dye in the bones. The radiotracer can be seen in your bones 2 to 3 hours after it is injected. You may be asked to drink water and empty your bladder to wash out any of the radiotracer that is not in your bones.

Radical Prostatectomy

Surgery that completely removes the prostate gland and surrounding tissue, as well as the seminal vesicles and part of the urethraPotentially removes all cancer cellsMay be recommended if your cancer has not spread outside the prostateMay be used in combination with other treatments e.g., radiation


External beam radiation delivers therapeutic X-rays to a localized area in order to kill cancer cellsOften a good option if age or general health makes surgery too riskyCan be used in combination with other treatments although surgical removal of the prostate is very difficult after radiotherapy

Robotic Prostatectomy

A surgical treatment for prostate cancer, the open radical prostatectomy procedure removes the entire prostate with an incision in the lower abdomen. With the advent of Laparoscopic Prostatectomy this is becoming rare and used only in select situations.


Prostate cancer is a very common kind of cancer that affects males, however, it is extremely treated in its initial stages. It starts in the prostate gland that is located between the penis as well as the bladder.

The prostate can be described as a tiny soft organ. It's about as big as a walnut and is generally soft and soft to the touch.

It's unclear what causes prostate cancer. Doctors are aware that prostate cancer starts when prostate cancer cells undergo changes to their DNA. A cell's DNA is filled with instructions telling a cell what it should do. The modifications tell cells to divide and grow more quickly than normal cells. The cells that are abnormal continue to live while other cells cease to exist. The accumulation of abnormal cells creates tumors that could develop into a tumor that can invade surrounding tissues. As time passes, certain abnormal cells might break free and then spread (metastasize) into other areas of the body.